Thursday, March 19, 2020

Essay on Business Ethics

Essay on Business Ethics Essay on Business Ethics Essay on Business EthicsWhat is the Categorical Imperative? How are the principles of Universalizability, Dignity of Persons, and the Kingdom of Ends derived from this Deontological Theory?Immanuel Kant is an outstanding philosopher who managed to give explanation to various concepts regarding responsibility and morality. Kant states that responsibility can be viewed as moral action that has its value. Kant defined the Categorical Imperative as â€Å"the statement of the moral law, or of supreme principle of morality† (De George 64). According to his philosophy, the principles of duty can make any action a Categorical Imperative, while any purpose that affects an action is Hypothetical Imperative. According to Kant, there can be only one Categorical Imperative, which was identified in his formulas of universal law. The Categorical Imperative is connected not only with the matter of the action, but also it is connected with its form and the principles followed by it. As a resul t, the Categorical Imperatives ignore any purposes and outcomes of the action. De George states that technical terminology of Kant helps to better understand the nature of the moral law. According to Kant’s philosophy, â€Å"the moral law commands categorically, not hypothetically† (De George 64). The Categorical Imperative differs from Hypothetical Imperative. According to De George, â€Å"the Categorical Imperative supplies the basic criterion of morality, even though in ordinary life we tend to solve moral problems by using second-order moral principles or rules†(70). Thus, the Categorical Imperative should not be applied to any situation.   One of the examples of the application of the Categorical Imperative is Ten Commandments, which reflect human morality, grounded on ethical principles.The principles of Universalizability, Dignity of Persons, and the Kingdom of Ends are derived from this Deontological Theory. According to Deontological Theory, some acti ons may be prohibited, while other actions may be obligatory. The principles of Universalizability can be viewed as a Deontological Principle, because it reflects Deontological Ethics. According to Kant’s philosophy, there may be only one Categorical Imperative, which is represented in three formulations: the universal principle of the law of nature, the principle of ends, and the principle of autonomy. These principles are called the principles of Universalizability. Nevertheless, it becomes clear that the principles of Universalizability do not generate any concrete norms of action, morally permissible. According to De George, According to De George, the Deontological Theory considers that â€Å"being moral is the same as being rational† (24). If a principle can be regarded as moral or rational, it must refer to Universalizability, and should be applied to everyone and to any situation. The Principle of Ends says, â€Å"So act as to treat humanity, whether in your o wn person or in that of any other, in every case as an end, and never as merely a means† (qtd. in De George 66). Each individual can be regarded as a rational being as he/she has a dignity. This fact means he/she should never be exploited as a means to generate good. The principles of Universalizability, Dignity of Persons, and the Kingdom of Ends are derived from Deontological Theory because of the morality of actions. According to Kant, the major principle of morality must be focused on the moral law that has universalizability characteristics, applied at all times to any moral agent.Thus, the Categorical Imperative is a significant criterion that helps to evaluate morality and moral principles. Kant’s philosophy claims that it is necessary to derive morality from reasoning. Morality depends on moral good. Deontological Theory generates the Categorical Imperatives that stand for the duties independent of any theory of good, placing emphasis on the action rather than o n the results or outcomes. Deontological Theory helps to solve the problems of morality. De George states that Kant’s moral theory is deontological because he is focused on the actions that are considered to be morally right in their motives, and that should be derived from duty rather than from inclination.Question 2What is the distinction between causal responsibility and moral responsibility? What are, if any, the excusing conditions for moral responsibility? What role do these excusing conditions play in terms of a) moral responsibility and b) moral accountability?There is the distinction between causal responsibility and moral responsibility. De George, the outstanding American philosopher, states that moral responsibility can be lessened in case of excusing conditions, which may prevent the individual’s action, making it impracticable. Moral responsibility can be viewed as a minefield as it is based on the concepts that do not include obligation or freedom of cho ice. It is possible to punish an individual on the account of his/her moral responsibility. However, causal responsibility has a different meaning because it depends on someone’s will. Let’s take another example: self-defense and murder. An individual may be causally and morally responsible for an action. In some cases, causal responsibility can be viewed as an essential condition of moral responsibility. De George states, â€Å"I am responsible for having hit him† (100). An individual may not be morally responsible for this action, but he/she will be causally responsible in any case. In other words, an individual may be causally responsible for some action if he played some role in bringing this action about. An individual may be morally responsible for some action if he/she not only played some role in bringing some action about, but also he/she initiated or organized some events which led to the occurrence of the action. It is necessary to understand the sign ificance of moral responsibility for business organizations. According to De George, causal responsibility is â€Å"an ingredient in both moral and legal responsibility† (100). De George believes that the chain of responsibility can be represented as a long chain, which involves individuals to bear both causal responsibility and moral responsibility. There is much evidence that causal responsibility is part of moral responsibility. For De George, it is very important that corporations are guided by corporate members who play the role of moral agents. This fact means that corporations can be morally evaluated.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are two types of excusing conditions for moral responsibility. These excusing conditions include ignorance and force. According to De George, â€Å"excusing conditions supply reasonable ways for lessening or predicting moral responsibility†(103). An individual may be morally responsible for the action, but because of excusing conditions, he/she is not responsible. Excusing conditions help to mitigate moral responsibility. For example, in the law, excusing conditions are recognized, and the murder committed of passion is considered to be less serious that the murder committed as a premeditated murder (De George 103). Moral responsibility is associated not only with the following concepts: â€Å"duty, obligation, possibility, knowledge, freedom and choice,† but also with â€Å"liability, accountability, age, praise, blame, intention, pride, shame, remorse, conscience and character† (De George 104).  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Moral accountability is a rather complicated concept as it is focused on an individual’s obligation and willing to act. Moral accountability can be found at all organizational levels in any business organization. An individual is ready to give an account of another individual’s action. According to De George, different members of an organization should be morally accountable for their actions. Accountability is focused on an individual’s explanation of one’s responsibility for some actions. Excusing conditions play an important role in terms of moral accountability. According to De George, moral accountability consists of being prepared to render a moral account of an action either for ourselves or as agents for others†(105). This fact means an individual should be ready to give an account of his/her actions, for which he/she bears responsibility. Nevertheless, it is necessary to mention that a moral account of an individual’s actions cannot be given clearly in moral terms.Essay on Business Ethics part 2

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

When To Keep That

When To Keep That When To Keep â€Å"That† When To Keep â€Å"That† By Maeve Maddox Since the 9th century, the word that has been one of the most frequently used words in the English language. It functions as pronoun, adjective, adverb, and conjunction. A browser search for â€Å"that† brings up 14,490,000,000  hits. Small wonder so many copy editors do their best to stamp out that whenever possible. One editor tells his authors to search their manuscript for all uses of the word that and then â€Å"Evaluate each and delete 95% with no loss of meaning.† I’d say that 95% is a bit high, but writers can reduce the number in a great many instances without loss of meaning. On the other hand, that should not be purged blindly in a misguided effort to save words. The following statement by a police spokesman quoted in a newspaper account illustrates the natural use of that in spoken English: We have to make sure that there is nobody inside any house; theres always the potential that our suspects have fled into a house that was occupied, which is why its highly important to us to make sure thats not the case. Four thats occur in this sentence: 1. conjunction introducing a noun clause that is the direct object of â€Å"to make sure.† 2. conjunction introducing a fuller explanation of the noun potential. 3. relative pronoun standing for house and introducing the adjective clause â€Å"that was occupied† 4. demonstrative pronoun, subject of is (â€Å"that is not the case†). Two thats can be dropped without loss of meaning: We have to make sure there is nobody inside any house; theres always the potential our suspects have fled into a house that was occupied, which is why its highly important to us to make sure thats not the case. A third that can be eliminated with a slight rewording: We have to make sure there is nobody inside any house; theres always the potential our suspects have fled into an occupied house, which is why its highly important to us to make sure thats not the case. How does one decide whether to keep or omit that? Clarity is the main consideration. Will the reader understand the sentence without it? Some readers may stumble over a missing that. A writer’s preferred style is another determining factor. My own style tends to be rather heavy on the use of that. For example, I would probably keep that after potential in the original quotation. A writer may feel that a sentence flows more smoothly with that than without it. That can usually be omitted after the verb say: Dickens said that he wrote A Christmas Carol as a â€Å"pot-boiler.† Dickens said he wrote A Christmas Carol as a â€Å"pot-boiler.† But even with the verb say, if an adverbial element intervenes between the verb and the clause, that is needed: Dickens said in an interview that he wrote A Christmas Carol as a â€Å"pot-boiler.† Dickens said years later that he wrote A Christmas Carol as a â€Å"pot-boiler.† When in doubt, keep the that. As it says in The AP Stylebook, â€Å"Omission can hurt. Inclusion never does.† Use that to introduce a clause that follows any of the following verbs: advocate assert contend declare estimate make clear point out propose state Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:36 Adjectives Describing LightProved vs. ProvenProverb vs. Adage

Sunday, February 16, 2020

End-of-Life Ethical Dilemma for Nurses Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

End-of-Life Ethical Dilemma for Nurses - Essay Example In a qualitative study, the differences in the ethical burden on end-of-life decisions between nurses and doctors were determined.   Although the research covered small sampling, which included seven doctors and 14 nurses working in critical areas, it never failed to convey the universal dilemma encountered by healthcare workers which is the struggle to arrive at a conclusive and moral decision regarding euthanasia.   Furthermore, the study’s findings concluded that the main difference in mercy killing is that physicians are to deal with the â€Å"decision making itself† whilst nurses have to â€Å"live with these decisions†.   Mercy killing is the kind of problem that does not leave the patient the sole right to decide.   It comes in varied forms of condition where the end result is the termination of the life of the patient.   Although a patient voluntarily requests for the termination of his life, ethical considerations must be taken into account.   More often a terminally ill patient is depressed so that the only solution he regards to, is death.   This issue leaves nurses and physicians the responsibility of determining the mental and emotional capability of the patient to decide for himself.   There is also the issue of the legality of the family to represent the unconscious, clinically dead patient and to request for discontinuation of life support.  Ã‚   Across the world, euthanasia has occupied a constant seat in the debate regarding morality.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Civil Rights Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Civil Rights Paper - Essay Example First-hand accounts of the Civil Rights Movement are common. They provide a superb window into the United States of the time. One of the things that make America such a strange country is that it was founded as a beacon of liberty, and was indeed the freest country in the world for much of the 18th and 19th centuries—if you were white. The flip side was that millions of Americans were slaves—treated like objects or animals. How could this dichotomy exist during this time in American history? The answer is that it could not continue to exist—it would be destroyed by the Civil War. While many Americans lament the loss of life during the Civil War and the destruction wrought by the dispute, the truth is that there was a glorious side to the War. It set millions of people free. One of the great predictors of this was John Quincy Adams. He was a president in the 1820s and died before the war began. Nevertheless, his first-hand account of what slavery meant to the Unit ed States is a very important aspect of our understanding of the United States at this time. In his memoirs he wrote: If slavery be the destined sword of the hand of the destroying angel which is to sever the ties of this Union, the same sword will cut in sunder the bonds of slavery itself. A dissolution of the Union for the cause of slavery would be followed by a servile war in the slave-holding States, combined with a war between the two severed portions of the Union. It seems to me that its result might be the extirpation of slavery from this whole continent; and, calamitous and desolating as this course of events in its progress must be, so glorious would be its final issue, that, as God shall judge me, I dare not say that it is not to be desired (Haysville). An account such as this one really breathes new life into our understanding of the precursor to Civil Rights Movement. In his memoir, Adams shows us just what America should be and what a cancer slavery and racism truly are . Without this kind of language it would be hard to grasp the full dimensions of the conflict that would come—both the Civil War and the Civil Rights Movement. Flash forward to the 1960s. A hundred years have passed since the slaves were emancipated and yet little has truly changed. African Americans cannot vote and have few rights. Something must be done about this situation. And so the Civil Rights movement was born. This was a gathering of millions of Americans who believed that the promise of American has not yet been fulfilled. They came from all backgrounds and races and they all believed in the worth of their country and themselves. They believed that America should truly be a beacon for freedom. Their leader was Martin Luther King Jr., a man whose speeches and writings provide an excellent view of this incredible historical movement. Few men left us much of a mark on the movement as Martin Luther King Jr. King Jr. is famously known today as a great speaker, but his wo rds are more than great rhetoric, they are a depiction of a whole era and the soul of the movement. We understand from just a few sentences what the Movement means to the country, when in a Birmingham jail, King says: You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham. But

Saturday, January 25, 2020

The Importance Of Research And Development

The Importance Of Research And Development New product design and development is more often than not a crucial factor in the survival of a company. In an competitive environment that is fast changing, firms must continually revise their design and range of products. This is necessary due to continuous technology change and development as well as other competitors and the changing preference of customers. A system driven by marketing is one that puts the customer needs first, and only produces goods that are known to sell. Market research is carried out, which establishes what is needed. If the development is technology driven then it is a matter of selling what it is possible to make. The product range is developed so that production processes are as efficient as possible and the products are technically superior, hence possessing a natural advantage in the market place. RD has a special economic significance apart from its conventional association with scientific and technological development. RD investment generally reflects a governments or organizations willingness to forgo current operations or profit to improve future performance or returns, and its abilities to conduct research and development. In 2006, the worlds four largest spenders of RD were the United States (US$343 billion), the EU (US$231 billion), China (US$136 billion), and Japan (US$130 billion). In terms of percentage of GDP, the order of these spenders for 2006 was China (US$115 billion of US$2,668 billion GDP), Japan, United States, EU with approximate percentages of 4.3, 3.2, 2.6, and 1.8 respectively. The top 10 spenders in terms of percentage of GDP were Israel (4.53%), China (4.3%), Sweden (3.73%), Finland (3.45%), Japan (3.39%), South Korea (3.23%), Switzerland (2.9%), Iceland (2.78%), United States (2.62%), and Germany (2.53%). In general, RD activities are conducted by specialized units or centers belonging to companies, universities and state agencies. In the context of commerce, research and development normally refers to future-oriented, longer-term activities in science or technology, using similar techniques to scientific research without predetermined outcomes and with broad forecasts of commercial yield. Statistics on organizations devoted to RD may express the state of an industry, the degree of competition or the lure of progress. Some common measures include: budgets, numbers of patents or on rates of peer-reviewed publications. Bank ratios are one of the best measures, because they are continuously maintained, public and reflect risk. In the U.S., a typical ratio of research and development for an industrial company is about 3.5% of revenues. A high technology company such as a computer manufacturer might spend 7%. Although Allergan (a biotech company) tops the spending table 43.4% investment, anything over 15% is remarkable and usually gains a reputation for being a high technology company. Companies in this category include pharmaceutical companies such as Merck HYPERLINK file:///wiki/Merck__Co.HYPERLINK file:///wiki/Merck__Co. Co. (14.1%) or Novartis (15.1%), and engineering companies like Ericsson (24.9%). Such companies are often seen as poor credit risks because their spending ratios are so unusual. Generally such firms prosper only in markets whose customers have extreme needs, such as medicine, scientific instruments, safety-critical mechanisms (aircraft) or high technology military armaments. The extreme needs justify the high risk of failure and consequently high gross margins from 60% to 90% of revenues. That is, gross profits will be as much as 90% of the sales cost, with manufacturing costing only 10% of the product price, because so many individual projects yield no exploitable product. Most industrial companies get only 40% revenues. On a technical level, high tech organizations explore ways to re-purpose and repackage advanced technologies as a way of amortizing the high overhead. They often reuse advanced manufacturing processes, expensive safety certifications, specialized embedded software, computer-aided design software, electronic designs and mechanical subsystems. Research has shown that firms with a persistent RD strategy outperform those with an irregular or no RD investment programme HenceI have chosen to analyze GSKs RD and focus how it achieved growth. Brief Company Background: Head quartered in the UK, GlaxoSmithKline was formed in 2000 as a result of the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham. It employs over 100,000 people in 116 countries with over 15,000 involved in research. GSK has a broad portfolio, with projects in the fields of respiratory, central nervous system, and anti-infectives to name a few. In addition, GSK has an extensive vaccines portfolio. According to GSK, it supplied one quarter of the worlds vaccines by the end of 2006 and had a further 20 in clinical development With nearly 210 pharmaceuticals and vaccine, GSK has one of the most promising pipelines in the pharmaceutical arena. However, its current success appears to be not only due to the blockbuster merger, but also to the leadership and business acumen of its CEO, Dr Jean-Pierre Garnier (formerly CEO of SmithKline Beecham), and his strategy to prioritise RD activities. Additionally, the strategic bolt-on acquisitions, such as those of Corixa and Domantis, have further strengthened the business, adding specialist expertise to maximise future potential revenue. It is important to note that GSK is not only a world leader in pharmaceuticals, but generates significant revenue from its Consumer Healthcare division Lucozade and Nicorette, for example, are globally recognised brand. In all core areas of GSK research and development plays a very important role in the product pipeline, new product development, launch and timing of the product and the final release of the product. In all these stages other department coordinate with the research and development department to ensure that the product helps GSK maintain a strong market share. Interview: GSKs Research and Development and its strategic priorities While writing this report I conducted a brief interview with Faisal Mehmud , Director GSK , Global Research and Development , who has said that GSKS merger was a complete success and that the RD department of GSK is one of the best in the world and has been instrumental in making GSK a market leader. Why do you think RD department in GSK is important? Faisal: Research and development is nowadays of great importance in business as the level of competition, production processes and methods are rapidly increasing. It is of special importance in the field of marketing where companies keep an eagle eye on competitors and customers in order to keep pace with modern trends and analyze the needs, demands and desires of their customers How do you manage GSKs RD capabilities? Faisal: Research often refers to basic experimental research; development refers to the exploitation of discoveries. Research involves the identification of possible chemical compounds or theoretical mechanisms. GSK normally buys licenses from universities or hires scientists directly when economically solid research level products emerge and the development phase of drug delivery is almost entirely managed by GSK. Development is concerned with proof of concept, safety testing, and determining ideal levels and delivery mechanisms. Development often occurs in phases that are defined by drug safety regulators in the country of interest. In the United States, the development phase can cost between $10 to $200 million and approximately one in ten compounds identified by basic research pass all development phases and reach market What does the term RD alliance means? And who are GSKs partners in RD alliance? An RD alliance is a mutually beneficial formal relationship formed between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon goals while remaining independent organisations, where acquiring new knowledge is a goal by itself. The different parties agree to combine their knowledge to create new innovative products. Thanks to funding from government organizations, like the European Unions Seventh Framework Programme and modern advances in technology. GSK has many partners in research and development including the world health organization (WHO) and the Japanese government to name a few. Research and Development in GSK: A brief Literature Review. With the general growth of RD in many academic and business fields, it is hardly surprising that the relationship between research and development and growth has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In an attempt to go beyond traditional assumptions about how research and development helps achieve competitive advantage and market growth, studies have focused on anything from different traditional, analytical or structural uses of research and development to aspects of marketing, such as product launch and timing, and other interactions in the product life cycle. While some research has focused only on the description and functions of research and development, other work has sought to show how research and development helps a company grow in terms of gaining and then maintain a competitive advantage not shared by its rivals. Accordingly, Kuemmerle (1999) suggests that research and development can be divided into studies that focus on product development and those that foc us on innovation. Much of the earlier work emphasized product development. SL Brown (1995) pioneering work suggested that product development can be divided into three streams of research and development: product development as a rational plan, communication web and disciplined problem solving . Thus, he argued that the type of RD capabilities will later shape the structure of the organization since research and development is a key component of product development and new products are becoming the nexus of competition amongst firms striving to achieve a larger market share(1995, p.5). While there are clearly some problems with SL Brownss work his analysis was not based on empirical research, for example the automatic equation of product development with `three streams is problematic the emphasis on research and development has understandably remained at the Centre of much of this work. Research has shown how companies invested in RD dominated more, interrupted less often, held the market share for longer, and so on (see, for example, J Griffin , Journal of product innovation 1995). The chief focus of this approach, then, has been to show how research and development interacts between new product development and dominant market share Some studies, however, have taken a different approach by looking not so much at RD in product development but have focused how research and development helps innovation. In a typical study of this type, JF Reinganum (1989) developed lists of what he described as research and development features of innovation. He argued that For research and development to yield up new approaches, they must also be closely coupled to the problems and challenges where innovation is needed. Much of this research has focused on comparisons between, for example the competitive nature of businesses and the ways to acquire larger market share through innovation. While some of the more popular work of this type, such as GC Moore (1991), lacks a critical dimension, the emphasis on innovation has nevertheless been valuable in interaction between research and development and company growth Although Kuemmerle (1999) distinction is clearly a useful one, it also seems evident that these two approaches are by no means mutually exclusive. While it is important on the one hand, therefore, not to operate with a simplistic version of product development and to consider research and development only in product development and innovation, it is also important not to treat research and development as if it existed outside sphere of business studies. As AH Van de Ven, HL Angle, MS Poole (2000) ask, Can it be coincidence that only firms with a persistent RD strategy outperform those with an irregular or no RD investment pr (p.80). Clearly, there is scope here for a great deal more research that is based on empirical data of research and development; operates with a complex understanding of research and development and its relationship with other core functions of business management looks specifically at the contexts of RD use, rather than assuming broad categories; aims not only to describe and explain research and development but also to change the overall understanding of RD and its importance in growth and development of a company. How research and development helped GSK GSK adopted a resource strategy to grow a well diversified global business.GSK invested heavily in its research and development (Â £3.2 billion in 2007 alone) and linked IT with biology to retrieve, process, analyse and model the vast amount of information for optimum results. GSK also realised the growth potential of emerging markets and drove expansion in Japan. The merger of Glaxo and SmithKline Beeckham created a diverse range of product portfolio for GSK and allowed geographical expansion GSK also grew its consumer healthcare business; this was done by focusing more on innovations and scare resources where they could make the biggest difference. Patent protection ensures competitive advantage, however once patent protection is lost a company has trouble maintaining a products position in the market, for this reason GSK maintains one of the best research and development facilities in the world and has some 160,000 RD staff worldwide At any time GSK has some 150 projects in clinical development comprising new drugs, product line extensions and vaccines to ensure their comparative advantage and their position as a market leader. GSK stuck with its past product success. These products were targeted at its current customers in their current markets. GSK implemented a conservative new product strategy by making minor modifications and incremental improvements in the packaging of their current products. At the same time they adopted a strategy of exploring market potential of their established existing markets by targeting them with extended new products. These new products were commercialized to replace old products that were running out of patent protection or substituted by superior rival products from competitors. GSK also identified new markets for its products. GSK adopted all these strategies simultaneously to grow a well-diversified business. GSKs main competitors such as Novartis, Pfizer and Sanofi-Aventis also have a strategy of delivering more products of value however GSKs strategy of delivering more products of value is based on simplifying its clinical RD and by adding value to the supplies brought into the organization. GSKs strategy was to increase flow and improve the distribution of its products simultaneously they increased the quality of their products through research and development and creating global brands with a strong marketing initiative. GSK also compensated individuals who bought supplies for them and took strong steps to improve their supply-chain management. Unlike its main competitors GSK maintained a prescriptive resource strategy. GSK used its resources for maximum strategic benefit. If we link GSKs strategic priority of delivering more products of value with its prescriptive resource strategy we see that GSK significantly grew its biopharm capability. Biopharmaceuticals are medical drugs produced using biotechnology. GSK invested heavily to attract the best talent, compensated them and took maximum advantage of their human resources and development, which resulted in not just a growth in biopharm but also resulted in enhanced productivity for drug discovery. GSKs vision of becoming a undisputed market leader can only be accomplished if it has the right talent. Research and Development hence helped GSK achieve all its strategic priorities. Methodology I envision this project as an investigation of three primary issues: how research and development helps an organization grow, how research and development helps in product development and how research and development helps achieve innovation. In order to conduct my research effectively I chose GSK as a company to study and prepare a case study, there were two important reasons for choosing GSK. Firstly GSK has a very good research and development department that has contributed to its growth as one of the biggest pharmaceutical companies in the world. Secondly GSK is a research based organization and hence maintains a very good RD capability which is worth researching. The first part of my research is primarily concerned with analysis of research and development in context with GSK. This is important because without this interrelation it becomes very difficult to understand the importance of GSK in a multinational business environment. I have also used this part to understand how research and development fits into a overall corporate strategy and goals of a company. This helps me understand why so much money is spend on research and development. It also answers several important questions from the point of view of shareholders who are often confused where these intangible costs are attributed and how the gains from spending on something non productive as research and development are maximized. The second part of my research is concerned with RD as a primary tool for production processes and product development as a linear function. As mentioned in the literature review this part is more theoretical than other parts as it involves research and development at the very core of product development. Figure 1 As shown in figure 1 Research and Development is at the very centre of product development in the product life cycle. Hence this area is of considerable importance in the field of business management and requires further research. It is a well established fact that any company that has a good RD department benefits in the long run compared to a company that gives little importance to RD hence in this part I tried to understand why research and development is so crucial in the long run for any company. By understanding product development with a case study of GSK I will begin to understand how research and development is linked with product development. Then with empirical evidence I will try and compare other companies whose research has helped them grow an impressive product portfolio. Next I will try and understand with analysis how other factors contribute to make research and development an effective force in product development, I will do this with a case study of GSK. The third aspect is how research and development contributes to innovation. For this it is important to understand innovation and study an innovative organization. Innovation helps an organization achieve competitive advantage which is a unique position a firm occupies with respect to its competitors. Innovation is a new discovery, which is commercially viable in a business sense, and which is not explored and marketed by anyone else. Innovation is protected through various mediums including trademarks and patents. I wanted to find whether research and development leads to innovation and if YES then how. For this I studied the basic model of the RD capabilities of GSK who have innovated many drugs and spoke with Dr Faisal Mahmud, Director RD, GSK. In this third aspect my focus was on the subjective side of research and development as a tool for innovation. It was observed that in an organization that devotes some and most of its energies in the primary research and development capabi lities do infect breed innovation. Also my research observed that most aspects of a business chain are integrated and linked with research and development. Research Methods. Primary Research: The fieldwork for primary research took place in two regions. I conducted an informal interview with Faisal Mahmud, Director Global RD, GSK. Also I conducted a SWOT analysis on GSK as a company, in general, and their RD department in particular. WEAKNESSES -Loss of patent protection. -Does not perform well on marketing practices. -Environmental performance. -External pressures. STRENGTHS -Size: Economies of scale -Patent protection. -Focus on innovation. -Good research and development. -Globally recognized brand. -Strong financial reserves. -Good return for investors. -Access to larger markets. -Experienced corporate management team. -Passion for achievement SWOT ANALYSIS DIAGRAM . OPPORTUNITIES -Expansion in developing countries. -Strong global influence. -Segmented market. -Product development -Growth in Japan. OPPORTUNITIES -Expansion in developing countries. -Strong global influence. -Segmented market. -Product development -Growth in Japan. OPPORTUNITIES -Expansion in developing countries. -Strong global influence. -Segmented market. -Product development -Growth in Japan. THREATS -Competitors. -Loss of key staff. -Political pressures. -Court cases. -IT development. -Legal controversies. THREATS -Competitors. -Loss of key staff. -Political pressures. -Court cases. -IT development. -Legal controversies. THREATS -Competitors. -Loss of key staff. -Political pressures. -Court cases. -IT development. -Legal controversies. OPPORTUNITIES -Expansion in developing countries. -Strong global influence. -Segmented market. -Product development -Growth in Japan. OPPORTUNITIES -Expansion in developing countries. -Strong global influence. -Segmented market. -Product development -Growth in Japan. THREATS -Competitors. -Loss of key staff. -Political pressures. -Court cases. -IT development. -Legal controversies. THREATS -Competitors. -Loss of key staff. -Political pressures. -Court cases. -IT development. -Legal controversies. OPPORTUNITIES -Expansion in developing countries. -Strong global influence. -Segmented market. -Product development -Growth in Japan. THREATS -Competitors. -Loss of key staff. -Political pressures. -Court cases. -IT development. -Legal controversies. I also conducted a survey of 10 GSK product users and asked them the following questions regarding the research and development of GSK Below a sample survey I conducted for my primary research Secondary Research: For my secondary research I conducted a judgmental sampling, this was done by the help of the BCG Growth share matrix model, which I used just for my research and the matrix allowed me to compare, along with sampling, different RD departments and their activities and link it, or compare it, with GSKs. This comparative studies was followed by many journals and articles I read online and many books including Corporate Strategy by Richard Lynch, which helped me not just in terms of comparison but also helped me conduct my research and analysis properly. Thus through my research I have tried to understand how GSK, through its RD, maintains a competitive advantage over its competitors. Apart from the above mentioned objectives, my project and research have answered the following questions: Globally diagnosis and treatments have improved, so people are using more medicines now than ever before. How does GSKs research and development help maintain demand for their products? Demand for safer, more effective, new medicines continues to grow. How does RD propose to integrate efficiency and safety? Ageing populations take long-term treatments. How does GSKs research and development propose to meet this challenge? Major healthcare challenges exist in the developing world with no easy solutions. Does GSKs research and development help improvised nations? It takes 10-12 years from the discovery of a potential new medicine until it is available for the patients. Can this time be reduced? The estimated cost of each medicine, from discovery to market, is $897 million but only 3 out of 10 new treatments recover development costs. Is it really worth it? Results Results As mentioned in the literature review and methodology the research conducted for this report focused primarily in three areas. How research and development helps an organization grow? How research and development helps in product development and how research and development leads to innovation. As mentioned this research was conducted with a case study of GSK. How research and development helps an organization grow? Results: From my research I found out that RD helps considerably for an organization to grow and expand. Based on facts until the merger of Glaxo and Smith to form GSK both companies maintained a highly productive research and development department but had opposite interests, while Glaxos main businesses were medicines Smithkline Beckham dealed in Vaccines primarily. Hence their research was limited in the sense of their strategy and their respective market share. After the merger both organizations integrated their RD capabilities and invested heavily in research and development. This led to many RD centers to be established across the world including in countries such as India and Australia which are considered emerging markets. This high investment in research and development created a diverse and unique product portfolio and led to groundbreaking developments in fields such as central nervous systems, bacteria, malaria and cancer. This helped GSK, a newly merged company in 2000 to become the second best pharmaceutical company in the world. Andrew Witty, CEO GSK, in an interview with the Financial Times in 2007 described the phenomenal growth of GSK to its outstanding research and development capabilities which led to a unique product portfolio and helped develop a strong position against competitors. From my research I found out that through RD GK developed a very good overall reputation for discovering new drugs which led to affiliations with organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO). Also RD ensures that new products not launched by competitors are developed and marketed which keeps the comparative advantage enjoyed by an organization and helps maintain a strong market share and growth rate in the long run. How research and development helps in product development? Results: Research and development forms the core and integral part of any product development. Business analysts evaluate gaps in the market and understand and comprehend market and customer needs. This information is then passed to the RD department who work vigorously to develop products which suit the requirements of the business models and corporate strategy of the organization. RD makes the designs, comprehends the requirements, conducts research and forms the basis and provides a prototype. This proto is then subjected to a number of tests to make sure the product meets the standard international health and safety laws and whether it is feasible. This process is very vigorous and time consuming. Once all the tests all positive then the organizational heads decide how best to market the product. Sometimes they even sample it to customers as an extension of the Testing process. It is established that not all RD leads to a standardized product and results in many wastages however without research and development constant changes which are needed for a product cannot occur and secondly product development process cannot start by ignoring RD costs and benefits. How research and development leads to innovation: Results: In my interview with Dr Faisal Mehmud he said Research often refers to basic experimental research; development refers to the exploitation of discoveries. Hence innovation is indeed a discovery and constant research helps solve unresolved problems in any field where research is being conducted. For example from my research I found that many updated versions of in market drugs that had limited cure in diseases such as malaria and cancer are solved by GSK . Many incurable diseases not have prescription. These are all innovations. Constant research invariably leads to innovation. Many innovations solve problems and are limited in scope for drugs for cancer. But constant research is the only way to solve these issues. Also as far as GSK is concerned most research is experimental and experiments lead to discoveries and innovations. Reflective Report: I started working on this report in November 2009. The fieldwork for this research took place in two regions and many academic journals, online materials, reference books and opinions were needed to complete this report. I faced a number of p-problems while writing this report and it was a big challenge. The first problem I faced was understanding RD. It is a very complex term and is used not just by firms but governments and even the military. Each RD capability has its own unique function that caters to the organization it represents. However what made this subject interesting to study was the importance of RD. When I first started my project, I remained in the forming stage for quite a while. It took me many weeks and many meetings to figure out what I was doing and split up into three broad categories. Although the forming stage did take a while, I was able to cover most of the norming stage at the same time because I started knowing the subject quite well. Once I finally formed my basis, the rest of the stages went much easier. I was able to finish up the norming and began performing rather quickly. This stage continued until recently as I was doing research, and reading journals, quite often. I performed quite well in research and spent very little time, if any, in the storming stage. Most of the storming I dealt with was with the help of other students and my academic teacher at Greenwich. I was trying to plan an interesting project, Another topic I was able to apply to my project was clarity and hardwork. Once I decided, I was able to take responsibility for different parts of the project. I learned to wor

Friday, January 17, 2020

Women in an Inferior position in China

The view of women in china may have changed over the years but they all have lived in a male dominated world. The past has been like many cultures, in the legal and cultural suppression of women. The culture of china's past has placed women as a far inferior position to men. In this environment gaining power and rights was extremely difficult. Despite this there are stories of important and powerful women in china's history. This is different than many cultures of the world where the suppression of women's rights was total through their history. The culture has become more open to women's rights over the years, allowing for more power and more control for them as they years went on. Education has slowly been allowed along with greater human rights. Modern women are allowed to travel, be educated, marry and be the sole wife. They commonly participate in politics, as well as all other fields of work. Women of modern times in china have greater possibilities and fewer limitations, but things are not perfect, there is still a social bias lingering from past inequality. The women of china's past lived in an intensely male dominated world. Men dominated china both in law and in culture. Legally women were in servitude to men in the forms of marriage polygamy was common practice for men. For the most part women did not ever participate in the governing of the country. There were Dynasties that were less conservative, women were allowed more power at times. This is evidenced by the rule of Empress Wu. She rose to power from the status of concubine to rule china. This was more exceptional rather than the rule. When the Sung dynasty took over, men dominated again. Any ability of women to gain political power was taken away. It is in the culture that the real domination can be seen. Without this the legal repression would not have happened. Many practices reinforced the view that women were inferior. From basic philosophy, Yin and Yang, equated, darkness to women and light to men. The beliefs of Confucianism said that women weren't meant to do outdoor work, thus construing them as weak and inferior. The idea of having them not do outdoor work was reinforced by the practice of foot binding. Again started in the Sung dynasty, this practice along with the other preferences on the appearance of women objectified them and put barriers on what women could do or be. Women were seen as property, as seen by the practice of concubines and polygamy those of high status had many women and having many sons was an even higher symbol of status. Despite these legal and cultural blocks on women, the domination was not total. There were many female figures that were looked up to and honored, both legendary and real women. At times the culture changed enough to allow women to participate in politics, and more rights were given to them. Powerful women of the past were looked up to and revered. The Queen Mother of the West was mixed with legend and history, but she was worship at times by men. Other legends indicate that women could be respected. Although Disney has probably distorted it a bit, the legend of Mulan even by being passed down shows a respect for women. Not only legends were respected. There were several times in the past that women have risen to power Empress Zhen (AD 182) was fought over and had power through her beauty and high status. Other women had even more power, Empress Wu, actually had power, and ruled china for a time. The culture of china's past has surpressed women, through it's culture and laws, with brief periods of cultural change, in which women gained rights and respect were brief and followed by periods which they were again taken away. These limitations on women, were reinforced by the isolation that china had, continuing into the twentieth century this isolation prevented women from leaving if they could not stand their situation. Despite the few legendary women the opportunities for advancement or power for women were few and difficult. Things have changed in recent times. Women are gaining power and rights in modern times. There are international groups protecting their rights as well. The first good example of this is in the ways of marriage. Arranged marriages, and those for money are no longer the norm. They are allowed to maintain their own names with marriage. Without this they are did not have as much of a separate identity. Also in modern times, women have gained the rights of inheritance from their families, equal to that of their brothers. Other aspects of women in marriage have changed. They are not as expected to bear children, and the culture is changing to give them a voice in this decision. In the areas of employment, there are opportunities as well. Women now make up 38 percent of the total workforce. In most major parts of the work force women play a part. Women even play a part in politics, representing a major part of their official government. These women are not legendary, or exceptional. It is just accepted and considered normal. Women have made advances in the field of education as well. Illiteracy among women has fallen as well and education is accepted. Women are allowed in universities and even given funding to continue education. These opportunities, encouraged by many international organizations are also backed by Chinese law. The law states: 1.Equal rights for men and women. The Constitution stipulates that â€Å"Women enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, including family life†; 2.Protection of special rights and interests of women; and 3.Banning of any discrimination, maltreatment and persecution directed at women. In addition Other laws have been enacted concerning their rights. These explicitly state aspects of life that women are equal to men. For example equal, equal votes, and rights to political power, freedom, and protection. These laws being stated are the only thing that I can see evidencing that there are not equal opportunities for women. The fact that they have to be stated so explicitly probably indicates a problem. It is difficult to find out what the cultural views of women are from the outside, but it appears that they have all the major opportunities that men do and that their power is increasing. One thing that has really changed is in the area of the world. There is the opportunity to leave the country and go to another culture. Granted the rest of the world is still mostly male dominated in culture, but the opportunity to emigrate is still there. The only lingering restrictions are from tradition. Lingering views of women as being inferior are probably the only thing that could keep them back now. These things can be seen through the increasingly seldom seen practices of mail order brides and foot binding. In addition, I came across a large industry of pornography featuring Chinese women when searching for information. These things limit the respect that women have in society. The opportunities for women have grow through history. Starting from the possessive view of women, giving them no rights, and giving men utter control, has changed in recent history to the to allow women more power, rights and education. Women have had their limits striped away, partly with law and partly through changing culture. The physical limitations have gone as well. The opportunities for travel have grown as well, the world is more open, and the ability to find a place more accepting exists. With fewer limitations, opportunities for women are increasing.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Aspc Preventing Animal Cruelty - 1485 Words

The ASPCA: Preventing Animal Cruelty One Animal at a Time The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, better known as the ASPCA is a nonprofit organization that focuses on preventing animal cruelty. The mission of the ASPCA is â€Å"to provide effective means for the prevention of cruelty to animals throughout the United States† (ASPCA). Animal cruelty and neglect are tremendous problems in the United States, therefore, organizations such as the ASPCA are needed to start the process of prevention. The ASPCA website is used to bring awareness to the issue of animal cruelty through actions such as: donations, volunteers, advocacy centers, adoptions, and fundraisers. The ASPCA website is effective in bringing awareness and†¦show more content†¦The variety of animals helps to appeal to many different types of animal advocates. These are a few examples of how visuals are used as an effective feature in representing the mission of the ASPCA. The next piece of criteria that the ASPCA website uses is the text. Each significant piece of information on the homepage is in large, bolded letters. This feature emphasizes the importance of the words. For example, the black text that reads â€Å"63 cents a day† is an important piece of information regarding donations. The text is also black in color, but placed on a white background. This idea makes the message â€Å"pop† and grabs the viewer’s attention. Due to the placement of the text, it catches the viewer’s attention and could drive them to consider donating just that small amount of money to the ASPCA. This is a vital factor for this organization, since donations help drive the prevention of animal cruelty. Also, the idea of using only sixty three cents to advertise donations helps to encourage people to take action seeing that it is such a modest amount. Another example is on the ‘Take Action’ page, the key elements are in bold colo rs such as blue and green. The final piece of text that supports the mission of the organization is in the menu bar. The orange text on the menu bar is eye-catching, which is essential considering the buttons lead to places where viewers can